Royal inbreeding extinguished the Spanish Habsburg dynasty which ended with the death of King Charles II … A sketch of King Charles II. Charles II Francis of Austria (German: Karl II. As with all other royal families of the time, the Habsburgs engaged in strategic marriages to consol… They rose from modest beginning as dukes to become emperors of Austria and of the Holy Roman Empire. Royal inbreeding extinguished the Spanish Habsburg dynasty which ended with the death of King Charles II … He was the last of the Spanish Habsburg line. Besides their long stints in the thrones of numerous countries, they’re also known for the distinctive Habsburg jaw. Was Charles II the worst affected? Relevant Chapters. Mary, however, disagreed, as did Charles's older brother Maximilian. Under Leopold I work starts on the rebuilding of Schönbrunn Palace and on additions to the Hofburg in Vienna. Charles II. His health had been so poor throughout his life, though, that it was surprising he lasted as long as he did. Charles II of Spain, the last ruler in the Habsburg family line. 39. Charles VI, (born Oct. 1, 1685, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 20, 1740, Vienna), Holy Roman emperor from 1711 and, as Charles III, archduke of Austria and king of Hungary. Price: US $14.99. First study to indicate a direct relationship between inbreeding and facial morphology. His body finally gave out and he died in 1700 when he was just 39 years old the accumulation of two centuries worth of harmful traits being passed down to a single body. 1685.) (Portrait of Charles II of Spain by Juan Carreño de Miranda, c. In 1573, Charles founded the Akademisches Gymnasium in Graz, the oldest secondary school in Styria. And it completely collapsed when Charles VI daughter, Maria … Credit: Wikimedia Commons. Charles' mausoleum in Seckau Abbey, in which other members of the Habsburg family are also buried, is one of the most important edifices of the early Baroque in the South-Eastern Alps. And it completely collapsed when Charles VI daughter, Maria Th… Accept all cookies. Source: TRAJAN 117 / Public Domain. by inviting the Jesuits to his territory. In Vienna on 26 August 1571 Charles married his niece Maria Anna of Bavaria. Details on the individual cookies can be found under “Cookie settings”. Select a period in Habsburg history, from the beginnings of Habsburg rule in the Middle Ages to the collapse of the Monarchy during the First World War. Habsburg versus the Sun King; Charles … He is now best remembered . by Taylor & Francis. Charles (b. Graz, 17 July 1579 – d. Graz, 17 May 1580). Select from premium Charles Ii Of Habsburg of the highest quality. Charles II was the last Spanish ruler from the House of Habsburg. His body finally gave out and he died in 1700 when he was just 39 years old the accumulation of two centuries worth of harmful traits being passed down to a single body. Save settings As part of his policy of rapprochement with France he negotiated a marriage for Charles with the French princess Marie Louise of Orléans. In 1559 and again from 1564–1568 there were negotiations for a marriage between Charles and Elizabeth I of England. King Charles II, painting by Juan Carreño de Miranda, 1685. In 1585, Charles founded the University of Graz, which is named Karl-Franzens-Universität after him. Juan Carreño de Miranda: King Charles II of Spain. Credit: Don Juan Carreño de Miranda As with all other royal families of the time, the Habsburgs engaged in strategic marriages to consol… Charles II, King of Spain, known among Spanish kings as "The Desired" and "The Bewitched", was the son of Philip IV by his second marriage with Maria, daughter of the emperor Ferdinand III, his niece. King Charles II of Spain was the last in the Habsburg line and one of the most afflicted with the ...[+] facial deformity Don Juan Carreño de Miranda/T&F Group. Charles II’s father and mother were closely related: Philip IV was … The people of Spain had a nickname for him: El Hechizado, which loosely translates as “the … We employ analysis cookies to continually improve and update our websites and services for you. Charles II (Spanish: Carlos II) was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. Maria Christina, Princess of Transylvania, Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, "Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich", Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, "Charles, called The Bold, duke of Burgundy", "Ferdinand V. of Castile and Leon and II. These conflicts between France and other European powers were one of those turning points in history, a sad capstone to the long reign of the Sun King, Louis the XIV. It was built from 1587 onwards by Alessandro de Verda and completed by Sebastiano Carlone by 1612. Until the 18th century, this method worked quite well. The Habsburgs were once the most powerful family in … King Charles’ Was Known as El Hechizado. Although this king was granted the right to run a large and powerful kingdom, he is remembered as an infirm ruler, thanks to his many health disabilities and his poor intellect. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. He did not learn to read and write until a comparatively late age and was excluded from any kind of higher learning, with the result that as an adult he was kept away from the affairs of government. Emperor Ferdinand I expected Elizabeth to promise in the proposed marriage treaty that Charles, as her widower, would succeed her if she died childless. In fact, his government is considered purely symbolic because, ascended to the throne at … The following analysis cookies are used only with your consent. Charles II and the issue of the succession. The information contained in the cookies is not used to identify you personally. Influenced by the opposition, however, Charles refused to put his signature to the agreement postponing the declaration of his majority for two years. Tight-Knit Family. As a result of Charles’ inbreeding, he was severely deformed. Scientists have proven inbreeding brought about severe facial deformations and collapsed … Sign in to check out Check out as guest . Charles II Franz of Austria (June 3, 1540 – July 10, 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola, Carinthia and Gorizia) from 1564. A portrait (by Juan Carreño de Miranda) of Charles II, the last of the Spanish Habsburg kings, and his father, Philip IV (painted by Diego Velázquez, of whom the king was a patron). However, Juan José also misused the king as an instrument for his ambitions. First study to indicate a direct relationship between inbreeding and facial morphology. He Was the Epitome of Habsburg Inbreeding. Mariana was also Philip’s niece, and she bore him five children. Charles II, Last Habsburg King of Spain. A native of Vienna, he was the third son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Hungary and his wife Anne of Foix-Candale. A new report at Smithsonian takes a look back at one of the most distinctive features of a royal family that once ruled much of Europe over the course of several centuries. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire, stretching from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies. The famous “Habsburg jaw” was a severe underbite; Charles’ was so intense that he … In practice, this resulted in tolerance towards Protestantism. Charles II of Spain painted by Juan Carreño de Miranda around 1685. Ferdinand was born on March 10 1503, in Alcala de Henares, Castellón, Espagna. In fact, the levels increase consistently from the earliest Spanish Habsburgs, like King Philip I (1478-1506), to Charles II, the last Spanish Habsburg king. Here you can view or change the cookie settings used on this domain. King Charles II of Spain, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1526, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. The negotiations dragged on until Queen Elizabeth decided that she would not marry the Archduke; religion was the main obstacle to the match,[1] apart from the Queen's character. His behaviour was marked by imbecility and infantilism; for example, he loved counting things, an activity from which he derived great pleasure and reassurance. https://www.habsburger.net/en/chapter/charles-ii-last-spanish-habsburg, Hamann, Brigitte (Hg. King Charles II of Spain was the last in the Habsburg line and one of the most afflicted with the facial deformity. Habsburgs including Joseph I, Charles I of Spain, Leopold Wilhelm and Charles II were known for having a very prominent lower jaw. Journey through the different epochs of Habsburg history from the Middle Ages to the First World War. Wikipedia. Charles II Francis of Austria (German: Karl II. He is regarded as a grotesque reflection of Spain’s decline and a prototypical product of dynastic inbreeding. The map shows the territorial development of the Habsburg Monarchy as it evolved into a sprawling, geographically fragmented empire. According to the last will of his father, Philip IV, Charles was to be declared to have attained his majority on turning fourteen and to assume the regency. In view of his feebleness (he suffered from a congenital heart defect) the prince was treated with extreme care as a child. Archduke Charles II Franz of Austria A native of Vienna, he was the third son of Ferdinand… Ferdinand was born on March 10 1503, in Alcala de Henares, Castellón, Espagna. In the superstitious beliefs of the time, his pitiable condition and physical deformity were interpreted by some as evidence of bewitchment. Later generations are included although Austrian titles of nobility were abolished in 1919. After eventually attaining his majority in 1675, he came under the influence of his half-brother Juan José, who following his return to court from exile had deprived the dowager queen’s party of its power and assumed the regency by force of arms. Read biographical notes and explore the historical context. Charles’ mother, meanwhile, was Phillip’s second wife, Mariana of Austria, whom the king had married in 1646. The Habsburg dynasty: Here you can read potted biographies, examine portraits from seven centuries and dip into the historical contexts of past epochs. Charles II attempted to have a child but was useless, when he died in 1700, Spain had a succession crisis, and the Habsburg dynasty loses it's grip on power over Spain and was replaced by France's Bourbon dynasty. Franz von Innerösterreich) (3 June 1540 – 10 July 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola, Carinthia and Gorizia) from 1564. Charles II of Spain, the last ruler in the Habsburg family line. All the members of the Habsburg dynasty. Kultur- und Mentalitätsgeschichte einer Familie, Graz 1997, Wurzbach, Constantin von: Habsburg, Karl II., in: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Band 6 (Wien 1860), S. 360–364. While there had been indicators that the Habsburg line was beginning to deteriorate biologically, not every chi… Charles II, Archduke of Austria HABSBURG was born on month day 1540, at birth place, to Ferdinand I Nicholas von Habsburg and Anna Jagiellonka. Franz von Innerösterreich) (3 June 1540 – 10 July 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola, Carinthia and Gorizia) from 1564. The item you've selected was not added to your cart. And Charles was indeed easy to influence: he always followed the suggestions of those around him, upon whom he was completely dependent. A portrait (by Juan Carreño de Miranda) of Charles II, the last of the Spanish Habsburg kings, and his father, Philip IV (painted by Diego Velázquez, of whom the king was a patron). Until the 18th century, this method worked quite well. Inbreeding wiped out Spanish Habsburgs, say researchers. But the Habsburg dynasty crumbled like stale bread when Charles II of the Spanish Empire – the last true monarch of the line – was born. As a result of Charles’ inbreeding, he was severely deformed. They had fifteen children: Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. King Charles II of Spain by Juan Carreño de Miranda . In the painting above is Charles II, king of Spain, the last of the Spanish Hapsburgs, and an imbecile whose premature death at the age of 39 ushered in a period of dynastic chaos which led to the War of Spanish Succession. The last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II, died in 1700. Habsburg Spain dissolved on November 1, 1700, following the death of its last, and probably the most infamous, ruler of all: Charles II of Spain. King Charles II of Spain by Juan Carreño de Miranda . PEPE MORON. The Habsburgs trace their origins to the Habsburg Castle in modern-day Switzerland. But their real rise to power begins in 1273 when Rudolf of Habsburgwas elected King of the Romans and the Kingdom of Germany. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. A 2016 Ancient Origins article explains that this mega-rich and influential European dynasty created a “hermetic reality” involving only those with Habsburg royal blood , and while from outside their empire everything appeared perfectly fine, their history contains many shameful and weird episodes leading up to Charles II of Spain in 1740, who being incapable of producing an heir brought the ancient family's senior branch, the male line lineage, to an end. The Habsburgs were notorious for marrying cousins, uncles, aunts, whatever, to keep power within their family. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. Find the perfect Charles Ii Of Habsburg stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Charles’s second wife, Maria Anna of Palatinate-Neuburg, also influenced the king in her favour, and he was degraded to being a mere pawn in the power struggle between his mother and his wife. Successor and son of second marriage of King Philip IV. Unlike his brother, Emperor Maximilian II, Charles was a religious Catholic and promoted the Counter-Reformation, e.g. 40. Charles II of Spain was just 38 years old when he died on November 1, 1700. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. Charles II, Habsburg jaw and all, was not able to produce any children of his own; researchers speculate that he may also have been infertile. Charles V (French: Charles Quint ; German: Karl V.) (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I (Spanish: Carlos I), of the Kingdom(s) of Spain (Reino de España) from 1516 until his voluntary abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556. King Charles II of Spain was the last in the Habsburg line and one of the most afflicted with the facial deformity. Note the prominent jaw. He is regarded as a grotesque reflection of Spain’s decline and a prototypical product of dynastic inbreeding. for his physical disabilities. Pictured, King Charles II of Spain, the last of the Habsburg dynasty, was severely affected by the deformity Portraits of Philip IV King of Spain (left) and Charles II of Spain (right) are seen above We employ strictly necessary and analysis cookies. The precarious situation of the Spanish Habsburgs, who were on the verge of extinction due to the lack of male heirs, manifested itself in rumours that the son marked so disastrously by the consequences of massive inbreeding was in fact a daughter who had been presented to the world as a boy out of panic that the dynasty was at an end. This page was last edited on 8 September 2020, at 22:51. from 1665 king of Spain (at first until 1675 under the tutelary regency of his mother Maria Anna) ... Chapter Charles II: the last Spanish Habsburg. Juan Carreño de Miranda: King Charles II of Spain ): Die Habsburger. In 1563, Charles was also a suitor of Mary, Queen of Scots, with her uncle Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, advising her to marry Charles in order to obtain assistance in governing Scotland. Charles II, king of Spain from 1665 to 1700 and the last monarch of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. Photo: Charles II of Spain, 1661-1700, Habsburg King of Spain. of Aragon", "Habsburg, Elisabeth von Oesterreich (Königin von Polen)", Maximilian Franz, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_II,_Archduke_of_Austria&oldid=977452381, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. But the Habsburg dynasty crumbled like stale bread when Charles II of the Spanish Empire – the last true monarch of the line – was born. The dynasty's Austrian line continued through the end of World War I, when Emporer Karl I renounced control over state affairs. Scientists have confirmed that facial deformities among the House of Habsburg … Charles II, King of Spain, known among Spanish kings as "The Desired" and "The Bewitched", was the son of Philip IV by his second marriage with Maria, daughter of the emperor Ferdinand III, his niece. Anna was born on July 23 1503, in Buda, Kingdom of Hungary. Chapter Charles II and the issue of the succession. (Portrait of Charles II of Spain by Juan Carreño de Miranda, c. According to a 1988 article in the Journal of Medical Genetics , nine successive generations of the Habsburg family had this pronounced jawline, so it started to be commonly known as the Habsburg jaw. Charles is also remembered as a benefactor of the arts and sciences. Charles was afflicted with an almost bizarre ugliness; in him the classic Habsburg physiognomy – a prognathous jaw and elongated skull – was exaggerated to an almost cartoonish degree. The Habsburg line had perished with the death of Charles VI but, with a sleight of title, Maria Theresa gave it a second life that would carry the Habsburgs into the 20th century. Archduke Charles II Franz of Austria A native of … Some of the most well known Habsburgs include emperor Ferdinand I, Charles II of Spain, Empress Maria Therese and Marie Antoinette. Charles II, Archduke of Austria HABSBURG was born on month day 1540, at birth place, to Ferdinand I Nicholas von Habsburg and Anna Jagiellonka. According to a 1988 article in the Journal of Medical Genetics, nine successive generations of the Habsburg family had this pronounced jawline, so it started to be commonly known as the Habsburg jaw. Later Charles’s half-brother, Don Juan José, the product of an extra-marital liaison between his father and the actress Maria Calderón, became an important figure for him. At the same time the era is marked by large-scale military ... © 2020 Die Welt der Habsburger All rights reserved. Habsburgs including Joseph I, Charles I of Spain, Leopold Wilhelm and Charles II were known for having a very prominent lower jaw. Also known as “the Bewitched” or “El Hechizado,” Charles II is mostly remembered for his ill-health that led to his death at the age of 38, without any heir. Habsburg Empire Threatend. But the final Habspurg king of Spain, Charles II, was perhaps the most unfortunate result of these unions. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire, stretching from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies. All his life Charles was under the changing influence of rival factions, who were, however, united in their efforts to instrumentalize the king for their own purposes. 1685.) Charles was born into political strife in Europe as the Habsburgs tried to control the entire continent. A 2016 Ancient Origins article explains that this mega-rich and influential European dynasty created a “hermetic reality” involving only those with Habsburg royal blood , and while from outside their empire everything appeared perfectly fine, their history contains many shameful and weird episodes leading up to Charles II of Spain in 1740, who being incapable of producing an heir brought the ancient family's senior branch, the male line lineage, to an end. His mother ruled as a regent for 10 years until Charles was a teenager. This is the age of magnificent courtly display. Charles’s actual condition is difficult to judge from a present-day perspective. The Habsburgs dynasty also known as the House of Austria ruled in Europe for more than 650 years. The classic form of representing these relationships is the genealogical table or family tree. View gallery - 5 images. Accept all cookies. Don Juan José administered the affairs of government in Charles’s name until his death in 1679. Inbreeding wiped out Spanish Habsburgs, say researchers. Following the sudden death of Don Juan José, Charles again came under the influence of his mother. Charles II, Habsburg jaw and all, was not able to produce any children of his own; researchers speculate that he may also have been infertile. He would have needed careful, conscientious guidance, something which the people around him failed to supply, since various groupings at court had a great interest in a weak king. Charles II of Spain was the last ruler of the Habsburg dynasty, a powerful dynasty that destroyed itself through inbreeding. Charles II of Spain was the last ruler of the Habsburg dynasty, a powerful dynasty that destroyed itself through inbreeding. Case in point: All of Charles’ great-grandparents were descended from the same parents: Philip I and Joanna of Castile. The political area referred to as Spain was, in fact… Item Information. The House of Habsburg (/ ˈ h æ p s b ɜːr ɡ /; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Wikipedia. The abortive attempts made to cure him by his physicians were accompanied by occult practices and exorcisms performed by priests. King Charles II of Spain was the last in the Habsburg line and one of the most afflicted with the facial deformity. He is regarded as a grotesque reflection of Spain’s decline and a prototypical product of dynastic inbreeding. Franz von Innerösterreich) (3 June 1540 – 10 July 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola, Carinthia and Gorizia) from 1564. King Charles’ Was Known as El Hechizado. Collected themes - browse stories and anecdotes from the history of the Habsburg Monarchy. Charles II was the last Spanish ruler from the House of Habsburg. Charles’s reign opened with a 10-year regency under the queen mother, during which the government was preoccupied with combatting the ambitions of the … The Habsburgs dynasty also known as the House of Austria ruled in Europe for more than 650 years. Cookies are a technical feature necessary for the basic functions of the website. In 1580, Charles founded a stud for horses of Andalusian origin in Lipica, Slovenia, thereby playing a leading role in the creation of the Lipizzan breed. Photo: Charles II of Spain, 1661-1700, Habsburg King of Spain. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. 39. The precarious situation of the Spanish Habsburgs, who were on the verge of extinction due to the lack of male heirs, manifested itself in rumours that the son marked so disastrously by the consequences of massive inbreeding was … With him ended the influence and dominion of the Habsburg dynasty in the Iberian peninsula and in the overseas territories. However, in 1572, he had to make significant concessions to the Inner Austrian Estates in the Religious Pacifications of Graz, and 1578 and the Libellum of Bruck. Cookie settings The inbreeding coefficient of the Spanish Habsburg kings increased strongly along generations from 0.025 for king Philip I, the founder of the dynasty, to 0.254 for Charles II and several members of the dynasty had inbreeding coefficients higher than 0.20. It was only after forceful persuasion by his mother that he was induced to sign it. You can block or delete these cookies in your browser settings, but in doing so you risk the danger of preventing several parts of the website from functioning properly. Monarch of Spain. Condition:--not specified. As the Inner Austrian line had to bear the major burden of the wars against the Turks, the fortress of Karlstadt/Karlovac in Croatia was founded in 1579 and named after him. These cookies are never used for purposes other than specified here. It led to the family's decline when Charles II, the final Habsburg monarch, was unable to produce an heir 8 Until now, no research has been able to … At first his mother and her advisor, the Austrian Jesuit and confessor Johann Eberhard Nithard, and later on the First Minister Fernando Valenzuela, had the greatest influence on the mentally fragile monarch. Disturbingly, by modern standards, intermarriage between blood relatives was commonplace among members of the Habsburg dynasty, who ruled several European kingdoms. You can also find further information in our data protection declaration. By the time Charles II was born in 1661, his genome was equivalent to that of a child born to direct siblings. Perhaps the most infamous of them all was Charles II of Spain. Water on the Brain… Operation! He encouraged the development of his feeble brother, and there seemed to be some improvement. Ein biographisches Lexikon, Wien 1988, Vocelka, Karl / Heller, Lynne: Die Lebenswelt der Habsburger. Facial deformity in royal dynasty was linked to inbreeding, scientists confirm. Also known as “the Bewitched” or “El Hechizado,” Charles II is mostly remembered for his ill-health that led to his death at the age of 38, without any heir. … Getty Images/ Factinate. They rose from modest beginning as dukes to become emperors of Austria and of the Holy Roman Empire. After Charles II Of Spain Died In 1700, His Autopsy Revealed Some Truly Astonishing Results. Anna was born on July 23 1503, in Buda, Kingdom of Hungary. Credit: Wikimedia Commons. Charles’s mother, the dowager queen Maria Anna, wanted to prevent this, arguing that her son was not yet mentally or physically mature enough for this great responsibility. Ferdinand (b. Judenburg, 15 July 1572 – d. Judenburg, 3 August 1572). Pictured, King Charles II of Spain, the last of the Habsburg dynasty, was severely affected by the deformity Portraits of Philip IV King of Spain (left) and Charles II of Spain (right) are seen above Spain as a unified state came into being de jure only after the death in 1700 of Charles II and with it the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty, and the ascension of Philip V and the inauguration of the Bourbon dynastyand its central reforms as in France. Rumors ran wild about Charles II during his lifetime, and this wasn’t … The prince was a sorry spectacle, and his feeble health caused the family to fear for his life. Charles II (Spanish: Carlos II) was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. The family in question is the Habsburgs. Monarchical rule was legitimized by descent. Charles II of Spain was born November 6, 1661 and became king in 1665 at the tender young age of four. Adding to your cart. During his lifetime Charles ran a vast and powerful kingdom, although he will be remembered as the last ruler of Habsburg Spain and the one with very severe health difficulties due to several generations of royal inbreeding. Elisabeth (b. Graz, 13 March 1577 – d. Graz, 29 January 1586). The famous “Habsburg jaw” was a severe underbite; Charles’ was so intense that he could not even close his mouth, not even for eating. While there had been indicators that the Habsburg line was beginning to deteriorate biologically, not every chil… Conceivably as a direct result of these marriages between relatives, infant and child mortality rose to 50% among Spanish Habsburgs, much higher than the average for the period. But their real rise to power begins in 1273 when Rudolf of Habsburgwas elected King of the Romans and the Kingdom of Germany. Some of the most well known Habsburgs include emperor Ferdinand I, Charles II of Spain, Empress Maria Therese and Marie Antoinette. The Habsburgs were once … Choose from various themes to access and explore the history of the Habsburg Monarchy, for example ‘work’, ‘love’ or ‘death’.